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New Genetic Study of the French

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New Genetic Study of the French  Empty New Genetic Study of the French

Post OsricPearl on Wed 7 Aug - 22:21

A study detailing French genetic history has recently been published. It doesn't seem to have told us anything we don't already know, but it is interesting none the less.

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/712497v2.full

The study of the genetic structure of different countries within Europe has provided significant insights into their demographic history and their actual stratification. Although France occupies a particular location at the end of the European peninsula and at the crossroads of migration routes, few population genetic studies have been conducted so far with genome-wide data. In this study, we analyzed SNP-chip genetic data from 2 184 individuals born in France who were enrolled in two independent population cohorts. Using FineStructure, six different genetic clusters of individuals were found that were very consistent between the two cohortsl

Rivers and mountains are natural genetic barriers, dividing up France into three distinct zones, which can further be subdivided up into six regional genetic clusters.

Anyway, on to results:
Results of FineSTRUCTURE analysis reveal fine-scale population patterns within France at a very fine level that are very consistent in the two datasets (Figure 1). FineSTRUCTURE identified respectively 17 and 27 clusters in 3C and SU.VI.M.AX, demonstrating local population structure (Figure S2). Even though the sampling distributions of individuals varies slightly between datasets both analyses show very concordant partitions with a broad correlation between clusters and geographic coordinates. The major axis of genetic differentiation runs from the south to the north of France.

In other words, there is a fine grade North/South gradient.

New Genetic Study of the French  F2.medium

The British presence is stronger in the NW (CEU), while the SW is heavily influenced by the Basque (IBS)
New Genetic Study of the French  F4.large

Another interesting Tidbit:
The extreme South-West regions show the highest differentiation to neighbor clusters. This is particularly strong in 3C dataset, where we even observe an additional cluster. This cluster is likely due to a higher proportion of possibly Basque individuals in 3C, which overlap with HGDP Basque defined individuals. The FST between the south-west and the other French clusters were markedly higher than the FST between remaining French clusters. In 3C these values are comparable to what we observed between the Italian and the British heritage clusters (FST=0.0035). Similar trends are observed in SU.VI.MAX even though the level of differentiation with the SW was weaker.

We also observe that the broad-scale genetic structure of France strikingly aligns with two major rivers of France “La Garonne” and “La Loire” (Figure 3). At a finer-scale, the “Adour” river partition the SW to the SO cluster in the 3C dataset.

While historical, cultural and political borders seem to have shaped the genetic structure of modern-days France, exhibiting visible clusters, the population is quite homogeneous with low FST values between-clusters ranging from 2.10-4 up to 3.10-3. We find that each cluster is genetically close to the closest neighbor European country, which is in line with a continuous gene flow at the European level. However, we observe that Brittany is substantially closer to British Isles population than North of France, in spite of both being equally geographically close. Migration of Britons in what was at the time Armorica (and is now Brittany) may explain this closeness. These migrations may have been quite constant during centuries although a two waves model is generally assumed. A first wave would have occurred in the Xth century when soldiers from British Isles were sent to Armorica whereas the second wave consisted of Britons escaping the Anglo-Saxon invasions37. Additional analyses, on larger datasets may be required to discriminate between these various models.

Simplistically, west France is basically British + Iberian while East France is German + Italian lol
At any rate, thoughts?




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Post Sary on Thu 8 Aug - 0:35

According to my paternal family tree, all of my fathers ancestors came to the new world from France. I always thought I was half French and half Polish.

Then I did Family Tree DNA /23 and me genetic testing and I was VERY surprised at my results, and how much Spanish and English blood I have.

I don’t know much about population genetics, but it makes sense.

I guess the Frenchman are really a genetic mix of people .... mutts LOL 1
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Post OsricPearl on Thu 8 Aug - 13:36

Absolutely. It's one of the reasons I find France so fascinating. It's the middle of Western Europe, both in a geographic sense and a genetic sense. ( I wonder what the eastern European equivalent would be, Poland?)


Any country that produces these two men as natives:
New Genetic Study of the French  ?u=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cinergie.be%2Fpicture%2Ffilm%2Foriginal%2Fimages%2Ffilm%2F_r%2Froi-danse-le%2Fle_roi3

Is really cool. I think that France has the greatest visual variation of any country in western Europe, so it's only natural that it should have the greatest genetic variations. However, according to the study, they are still quite homogeneous.




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Post Neon Knight on Sat 10 Aug - 21:28

I downloaded this paper about two weeks ago but hadn't got around to reading it. The pie-chart maps are not fully clear to me because there are more than the three colours in the bar chart, or whatever they call it. But, yeah, they pretty much range from full Spaniards in the south-west to 3/4 Britons in the north-west. The map below accompanied the People of the British Isles study and you can see a similar pattern for France with the Spanish (purple 31) and British (blue  14 & 17) elements.

New Genetic Study of the French  Potbi_10

It surprises me that 23andMe can't tell the difference between French and German ancestry. Maybe they haven't got enough samples, but they should have.




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Post OsricPearl on Tue 13 Aug - 2:16

23 and me not telling the difference is problematic for the company. I hope they change it soon. After all, they can tell the difference between Portuguese and Spanish! Shrug




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Post Sary on Tue 13 Aug - 17:10

@OsricPearl wrote:Absolutely. It's one of the reasons I find France so fascinating. It's the middle of Western Europe, both in a geographic sense and a genetic sense. ( I wonder what the eastern European equivalent would be, Poland?)


Any country that produces these two men as natives:
New Genetic Study of the French  ?u=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cinergie.be%2Fpicture%2Ffilm%2Foriginal%2Fimages%2Ffilm%2F_r%2Froi-danse-le%2Fle_roi3

Is really cool. I think that France has the greatest visual variation of any country in western Europe, so it's only natural that it should have the greatest genetic variations. However, according to the study, they are still quite homogeneous.

I don’t think that Poland has as much genetic diversity as France does, at least not in my case.
Both of my maternal grandparents immigrated from Poland and my genetic testing seems to reflect that. There is no other Eastern European DNA on my ancestry report other than Polish.
I am wondering though, what happened to the 5% that is missing from my maternal inheritance?
It is probably lumped in with my German, considering how many times the border between Germany and Poland has been moved.
It does not make sense to me either,  that they can not separate the French from German.
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Post Neon Knight on Thu 15 Aug - 1:43

^ It makes little sense that they can differentiate between Poles and other East Europeans, but not between French and Germans. Either they are not using the best available methods of analysis or their sample sizes are too small or too vague. But it would help if the samples from academic studies were made available to them.




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Post OsricPearl on Thu 15 Aug - 2:02

@Neon Knight wrote:^ It makes little sense that they can differentiate between Poles and other East Europeans, but not between French and Germans. Either they are not using the best available methods of analysis or their sample sizes are too small or too vague. But it would help if the samples from academic studies were made available to them.

I agree and I hope this changes soon. Scratching




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Post Sary on Sun 15 Sep - 22:01

23 and me has updated my ancestory composition once again.
Now I am getting less Spanish/Portuguese and British/Irish but a higher percentage of French/German.
They have also fine tuned the German and are placing my strongest match in the North Rhine - Westphalia.
I imagine, as more people are tested and the data base grows, the more specific the test will become. It is only a matter of time.
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