Like/Tweet/+1
Latest topics
» Now listening to . . .
by Neon Knight Today at 0:56

» Animals - News & General
by Sary Yesterday at 10:55

» Front National / Rassemblement National
by Neon Knight Wed 14 Nov - 18:16

» Hitler's friendship with a part Jewish child
by Neon Knight Wed 14 Nov - 1:21

» Italian 'land-for-children' idea to increase birth rate
by Sary Mon 5 Nov - 22:41

» 12 Common French Gestures
by Sary Mon 5 Nov - 22:21

» White majorities feel threatened [good article]
by Neon Knight Mon 5 Nov - 20:40

» Germany's AfD Party
by Neon Knight Sun 4 Nov - 22:00

» There's only 11 mins of play in an American football game
by Jehan I Sat 3 Nov - 13:06

» Song Cover-Versions & Originals
by Neon Knight Sat 3 Nov - 1:38

» English Teen Kidnapped for 12 years
by Jehan I Fri 2 Nov - 18:56

» Old Film Trailers (to 2009)
by Neon Knight Wed 31 Oct - 22:09

» Classic TV Adverts
by Neon Knight Wed 31 Oct - 21:26

» European Royalty
by Neon Knight Wed 31 Oct - 21:12

» Halloween Customs of Scotland
by Neon Knight Wed 31 Oct - 20:50

» British New Zealander politician cannot understand Scottish accent
by OsricPearl Mon 29 Oct - 13:32

» Personality traits linked to political orientation
by Neon Knight Tue 23 Oct - 14:00

» Favourite Film Scenes
by Neon Knight Fri 19 Oct - 19:13

» Opinion survey on gene editing
by Sary Fri 19 Oct - 2:00

» More Madness from America - The Fake Indian
by OsricPearl Thu 18 Oct - 3:28

» Students to lecture profs. on diversity
by Neon Knight Tue 16 Oct - 21:45

» A flag to represent European people?
by Sary Sun 14 Oct - 1:30

» How do you write these numbers in words?
by OsricPearl Sat 13 Oct - 22:41

» UK Migration Issues
by Neon Knight Sat 13 Oct - 22:09

» Radio hostess banned for 'safe space' joke
by Neon Knight Wed 10 Oct - 23:56

» Beautiful Feminine Art
by OsricPearl Wed 10 Oct - 2:50

» Supreme Court Clown Car of Witches
by Neon Knight Mon 8 Oct - 20:26

» Defence Spending - NATO and Others
by Neon Knight Sun 7 Oct - 21:17

» Jirel of Joiry - the first female fantasy warrior
by OsricPearl Fri 5 Oct - 18:10

» Accounts of Apparitions
by Neon Knight Fri 5 Oct - 1:08

» London Street Scenes 1967
by Neon Knight Sun 30 Sep - 23:20

» American/British/German Attitudes to Military Heroism
by Sary Sun 30 Sep - 22:30

» Africa’s dangerous baby boom
by Neon Knight Sat 29 Sep - 18:03

» Waterfalls of Iceland
by Neon Knight Thu 27 Sep - 21:16

» What it takes to be superhuman
by Sary Sat 22 Sep - 1:22

» France nearly restored its monarchy in 1871
by Iseult Mon 17 Sep - 7:23

» Sweden votes tomorrow
by OsricPearl Sun 16 Sep - 15:39

» Rise of Nationalist Parties in Europe
by OsricPearl Sat 15 Sep - 18:30

» The Society for Creative Anachronism and a Swastika Controversy
by Neon Knight Fri 14 Sep - 22:35

» Project to put Sadiq Khan balloon over London
by Neon Knight Mon 3 Sep - 17:22


Plague reached Europe by Stone Age

Reply to topic

View previous topic View next topic Go down

Plague reached Europe by Stone Age

Post Vendég on Wed 22 Nov - 20:43

Plague reached Europe by Stone Age

By Paul Rincon
Science editor, BBC News website

Plague was present in Europe during the late Stone Age, according to a study of ancient remains.

Writing in Current Biology journal, researchers suggest the deadly bacterium entered Europe with a mass migration of people from further east.
They screened more than 500 ancient skeletal samples and recovered the full genomes of plague bacteria from six individuals.
These six variously date to between Late Neolithic and Bronze Age times.
The plague-positive samples come from Russia, Germany, Lithuania, Estonia and Croatia.
"The two samples from Russia and Croatia are among the oldest plague-positive samples published. They are contemporary with [a] previously published sample from the Altai region [in Siberia]," co-author Alexander Herbig from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany, told BBC News.

The plague bacterium, Yersinia pestis, was responsible for several major historic pandemics, including the infamous Black Death in the 14th Century, which is estimated to have killed between 30% and 60% of Europe's population.
Analysis of the ancient plague DNA shows that Y. pestis genomes from the Neolithic and Bronze Age were all fairly closely related.
This is intriguing because the individuals from which they were recovered come from such a wide geographic area.
"This suggests that the plague either entered Europe multiple times during this period from the same reservoir, or entered once in the Stone Age and remained there," said co-author Aida Andrades Valtueña, also from the Max Planck Institute in Jena.
In order to clarify which scenario was most likely, the researchers looked for clues from archaeology and from the analysis of ancient human DNA.

From about 4,800 years ago, there was a major expansion of people into Europe from a region called the Caspian-Pontic Steppe in present-day Russia and Ukraine.
These people carried a distinctive genetic component - also seen in Siberians and Native Americans - that had not been present in Europeans before the late Neolithic.
The earliest indications of plague in Europe coincide with the arrival of this "steppe ancestry" in Europeans.
Dr Herbig said this supports "the view that Y. pestis was possibly introduced to Europe from the steppe around 4,800 years ago, where it established a local reservoir before moving back towards Central Eurasia".
Analysis shows that plague bacteria genes related to virulence were changing at this time. But further work is needed to determine how these changes affected the severity of the disease.

However, it's certainly possible that these early Y. pestis bacteria were already capable of causing large-scale epidemics.
The steppe people could have been moving to get away from a plague outbreak - although the effects of climate change on the landscape in this region may also have played a role.

The disease could also have been involved in profound genetic changes seen in European populations at this time. In some regions, the steppe people appear to have largely replaced the previous Neolithic inhabitants.
"It's possible that certain European populations, or the steppe people, may have had a different level of immunity [to Y. pestis]," said Johannes Krause, from the Max Planck Institute.
Dr Herbig commented: "The plague might have been a factor among others that promoted the migration processes during this time period. However, our current data has insufficient resolution to see how specific regions within Europe were affected differently by the disease."
He added that the team planned to screen more skeletal material from all over Europe as a next step.

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-42083252

Vendég
Guest


Back to top Go down

View previous topic View next topic Back to top

- Similar topics

Permissions in this forum:
You can reply to topics in this forum