Like/Tweet/+1
Latest topics
» Government Shutdown over Border Wall
by Neon Knight Yesterday at 18:58

» Historical European Martial Arts, Arms & Armour
by Neon Knight Yesterday at 18:34

» Now listening to . . .
by Neon Knight Yesterday at 4:12

» 23andMe update
by OsricPearl Sat 19 Jan - 22:23

» Brexit Saga Update
by Neon Knight Sat 19 Jan - 21:49

» How Poisons Kill
by Sary Fri 18 Jan - 0:27

» Blond hair has more genetic variants
by OsricPearl Tue 15 Jan - 3:25

» Reincarnation
by Sary Tue 15 Jan - 0:35

» Political Systems
by Neon Knight Sat 22 Dec - 22:57

» British Attitudes to Racism
by Neon Knight Sat 22 Dec - 19:46

» Twitter's dangerous approach to hate speech
by Neon Knight Fri 21 Dec - 18:04

» The Marrakesh Migration Declaration / Pact
by Neon Knight Wed 19 Dec - 23:39

» Psychopaths & Sociopaths
by Neon Knight Wed 19 Dec - 23:29

» When is the brain fully developed?
by Sary Wed 19 Dec - 20:51

» Distribution of EU Funding
by Sary Mon 17 Dec - 21:41

» Over-consumption of earth's resources continues
by Neon Knight Sat 15 Dec - 20:18

» Tommy Robinson
by Neon Knight Sun 9 Dec - 23:01

» Paris is Burning
by Sary Sat 8 Dec - 19:14

» Accounts of Apparitions
by Neon Knight Sat 8 Dec - 18:32

» Song Cover-Versions & Originals
by Neon Knight Wed 5 Dec - 23:22

» The tallest statue in Europe
by Neon Knight Sun 2 Dec - 23:57

» UK Migration Issues
by Neon Knight Sun 2 Dec - 23:42

» How populist are you?
by Neon Knight Wed 28 Nov - 21:46

» Germany's AfD Party
by Neon Knight Tue 27 Nov - 23:28

» Attitudes to flag flying in Britain
by Neon Knight Mon 26 Nov - 20:42

» Global Cooling Upon us?
by Sary Sat 24 Nov - 13:02

» What do the Irish think of the English?
by OsricPearl Fri 23 Nov - 0:23

» Are Scots still against independence?
by Neon Knight Tue 20 Nov - 19:40

» dNA.Land
by OsricPearl Tue 20 Nov - 18:43

» Origin of the Sámi
by OsricPearl Tue 20 Nov - 16:57

» Sci-fi vs. Reality: Are we really going to colonize space?
by Sary Tue 20 Nov - 0:27

» An AI apocalypse is possible
by Neon Knight Mon 19 Nov - 21:04

» Animals - News & General
by Sary Thu 15 Nov - 10:55

» Front National / Rassemblement National
by Neon Knight Wed 14 Nov - 18:16

» Hitler's friendship with a part Jewish child
by Neon Knight Wed 14 Nov - 1:21

» Italian 'land-for-children' idea to increase birth rate
by Sary Mon 5 Nov - 22:41

» 12 Common French Gestures
by Sary Mon 5 Nov - 22:21

» White majorities feel threatened [good article]
by Neon Knight Mon 5 Nov - 20:40

» There's only 11 mins of play in an American football game
by Jehan I Sat 3 Nov - 13:06

» English Teen Kidnapped for 12 years
by Jehan I Fri 2 Nov - 18:56


Plague reached Europe by Stone Age

Reply to topic

View previous topic View next topic Go down

Plague reached Europe by Stone Age

Post Vendég on Wed 22 Nov - 20:43

Plague reached Europe by Stone Age

By Paul Rincon
Science editor, BBC News website

Plague was present in Europe during the late Stone Age, according to a study of ancient remains.

Writing in Current Biology journal, researchers suggest the deadly bacterium entered Europe with a mass migration of people from further east.
They screened more than 500 ancient skeletal samples and recovered the full genomes of plague bacteria from six individuals.
These six variously date to between Late Neolithic and Bronze Age times.
The plague-positive samples come from Russia, Germany, Lithuania, Estonia and Croatia.
"The two samples from Russia and Croatia are among the oldest plague-positive samples published. They are contemporary with [a] previously published sample from the Altai region [in Siberia]," co-author Alexander Herbig from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany, told BBC News.

The plague bacterium, Yersinia pestis, was responsible for several major historic pandemics, including the infamous Black Death in the 14th Century, which is estimated to have killed between 30% and 60% of Europe's population.
Analysis of the ancient plague DNA shows that Y. pestis genomes from the Neolithic and Bronze Age were all fairly closely related.
This is intriguing because the individuals from which they were recovered come from such a wide geographic area.
"This suggests that the plague either entered Europe multiple times during this period from the same reservoir, or entered once in the Stone Age and remained there," said co-author Aida Andrades Valtueña, also from the Max Planck Institute in Jena.
In order to clarify which scenario was most likely, the researchers looked for clues from archaeology and from the analysis of ancient human DNA.

From about 4,800 years ago, there was a major expansion of people into Europe from a region called the Caspian-Pontic Steppe in present-day Russia and Ukraine.
These people carried a distinctive genetic component - also seen in Siberians and Native Americans - that had not been present in Europeans before the late Neolithic.
The earliest indications of plague in Europe coincide with the arrival of this "steppe ancestry" in Europeans.
Dr Herbig said this supports "the view that Y. pestis was possibly introduced to Europe from the steppe around 4,800 years ago, where it established a local reservoir before moving back towards Central Eurasia".
Analysis shows that plague bacteria genes related to virulence were changing at this time. But further work is needed to determine how these changes affected the severity of the disease.

However, it's certainly possible that these early Y. pestis bacteria were already capable of causing large-scale epidemics.
The steppe people could have been moving to get away from a plague outbreak - although the effects of climate change on the landscape in this region may also have played a role.

The disease could also have been involved in profound genetic changes seen in European populations at this time. In some regions, the steppe people appear to have largely replaced the previous Neolithic inhabitants.
"It's possible that certain European populations, or the steppe people, may have had a different level of immunity [to Y. pestis]," said Johannes Krause, from the Max Planck Institute.
Dr Herbig commented: "The plague might have been a factor among others that promoted the migration processes during this time period. However, our current data has insufficient resolution to see how specific regions within Europe were affected differently by the disease."
He added that the team planned to screen more skeletal material from all over Europe as a next step.

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-42083252

Vendég
Guest


Back to top Go down

View previous topic View next topic Back to top

- Similar topics

Permissions in this forum:
You can reply to topics in this forum